Posts Tagged ureters

Renal and Postrenal Causes of Renal Failure

As distinct from prerenal causes, renal causes of renal failure include all pathological conditions which affect parenchyma of kidneys. The most often reasons of acute kidneys affection are acute glomerulonephrites, interstitial nephritises, renotrophic intoxications, clottage of renal vessels, kidney infarct, etc. It is necessary to note, that the pathological process can affect both renal glomuluses (glomerulonephritis), disturbing the process of filtration, and epithelium of tubules (nephritis, intoxications), what results in their congestion and their disturbed reabsorbtion.

One of common forms of renal failure is congestion of renal tubules by haemoglobin of decayed erythrocytes that usually occures during massive hemolysis. Renal failure develops also in case of nephrectomy of both kidneys or their serious traumas.

The most common postrenal causes of renal failure are acute obstruction of ureters of both kidneys which can occure in case of urolithiasis, prelum of ureters by a ligature (during surgical operations), hematoma (because of traumas), tumour, etc. As a rule, simultaneous functional disorder of both ureters happens quite seldom.

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Etiology and Pathogeny of Renal Failure

Renal failure is a pathological condition which is characterized by a complete or partial renal disfunction in maintaining chemical constancy of the organism. Renal failure is accompanied with improper process of secretion and removal of urine, water-salt, acid-alkaline and osmotic imbalance, slow removal of nonvolatile acids and nitrous products (urea, creatinine, urinary acid, etc.).

From the point of view of pathogeny and clinical development of the disease there are two types of renal failure: acute and chronic.

Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe disfunction of one or both kidneys that affects either all nephrons, or all parts of canaliculi, or glomerular system. ARF develops as a result of affection of various pathological exogenous or endogenous causes on renal parenchyma.

Diagnostics is based first of all on the anamnesis: whether the patient used toxicant products or medicinal preparations, attempted to do an abortion, etc. Further, it is necessary to exclude obstruction of urinary ways with the help of catheterization. Among other methods that are used to diagnose acute renal failure are: ultrasonic examination, computer tomography, radioisotopic renography, cystoscopy.

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a pathological symptom complex that is caused by rapid decrease of nephrons and their functioning, as well as glomerular filtration. CRF develops as a consequence of such diseases and factors as: chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, metabolic disease and disturbances (diabetes, gout), anomalies of kidneys and ureters (hypoplasia of kidneys, polycystosis of kidneys, neuromuscular dysplasia of ureters), intoxication with lead, mercury, analgesics, antibiotics, etc.

When this symptoms of this pathological condition occure, it is necessary to consult your doctor immediately. It is of vital importance to start the appropriate course of treatment without a delay.

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